Cristhmas Dishes in the world

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TURRON, traditional Christmas dessert in Spain


Turrón de Alicante (Casa Mira).jpg

Turrón of Alicante type
Alternative name(s):
Torró, torrone, torrão, turon, nougat
Main ingredient(s):
Honey, sugar, egg whites, almonds or other nuts
Recipes at Wikibooks:
Cookbook Turrón
Media at Wikimedia Commons:
Wikimedia Commons  Turrón

Turrón (Spanish: [tuˈron]), torró (Catalan: [tuˈro], [toˈro]), torrone (Italian: [torˈrone], Brazilian Portuguese: [toˈʁoni]), torrão (European Portuguese: [tuˈʁɐ̃w]), turon (Tagalog: [tuˈɾon]) or nougat is a confection, typically made of honey, sugar, and egg white, with toasted almonds or other nuts, and usually shaped into either a rectangular tablet or a round cake. It is frequently consumed as a traditional Christmas dessert in Spain and Italy. There are also some varieties in Latin America and the Philippines. In other countries it often appears, sometimes chocolate-coated, in a mixed box of chocolates.


The 16th-century Manual de Mujeres (“Women’s Handbook”), a handbook of recipes for cosmetics and some foodstuffs, has what is probably the oldest extant Spanish turrón recipe.[1] It calls for honey and some egg whites, cooked until it becomes breakable once cooled. Once the honey is caramelized the recipe suggests adding pine nuts, almonds or hazelnuts, peeled and roasted. The mix is then cooked a bit further, and finally removed from the heat and cut into slices.


All versions of the name appear to have been derived from Latin torrere (to toast). The actual confection might have been derived from the cuisine of Iberian Muslims during the Christian reconquest of Spain, as they had a similar dessert named turun.[2] One may also point to a similar confection named cupedia or cupeto that was marketed in Ancient Rome and noted by Roman poets.[3][4]

Turrón or Torró has been known at least since the 15th century in the city of Jijona/Xixona (formerly Sexona), north of Alicante. The similar Torrone is typical of Bagnara, Taurianova, Benevento and Cremona in Italy. Turrón is commonly consumed in most of Spain, some countries of Latin America, and in Roussillon (France). There are similar confections made in the Philippines.

Variations are found in several regions of the northern Mediterranean.


Turrón itself can take on a variety of consistencies and appearances, however they traditionally consisted of the same ingredients; the final product may be either hard and crunchy, or soft and chewy. Thirty years ago almost all turrón recipes followed the same specifications, but since the diversification of products there are currently dozens of varieties: chocolate with puffed rice or whole almonds; all kinds of chocolate pralines, with or without liquor, candied fruits or whole nuts; fruit pralines; and even sugarless variations (sweetened with fructose or artificial sweeteners).

Spanish turrón

Spanish turrón may be roughly classified as:

  • Hard (the Alicante variety): A compact block of whole almonds in a brittle mass of eggs, honey and sugar; 60% almonds.
  • Soft (the Jijona variety): Similar but the almonds are reduced to a paste. The addition of oil makes the matrix more chewy and sticky; 64% almonds.[5]

This variation in ingredients and resulting dryness reflects a continuum that exists also in amaretto (almond flavored) cookies, from a meringue to a macaroon.

Other varieties include Torró d’Agramunt from near Lleida, Torró de Xerta from near Tortosa and torró de Casinos.

Italian torrone

Torrone Classico

Torrone is a traditional winter and Christmas confection in Italy and many varieties exist. Traditional versions from Cremona, Lombardy, range widely in texture (morbido, soft and chewy, to duro, hard and brittle) and in flavor (with various citrus flavorings, vanilla, etc., added to the nougat) and may contain whole hazelnuts, almonds and pistachios or only have nut meal added to the nougat. Some commercial versions are dipped in chocolate. The popular recipes have varied with time and differ from one region to the next. Torrone di Benevento from Benevento, Campania, sometimes goes by the historic name Cupedia, which signifies the crumbly version made with hazelnuts. The softer version is made with almonds. Although originally resembling sticky paste, it now differs only marginally from the varieties of Torrone di Cremona.[6][7] Abruzzo, Sicily and Sardinia also have local versions that may be slightly distinct from the two main denominations from Lombardy and Campania.[8] The following information is printed on boxes of torrone distributed by Ferrara Foods, West Deptford, NJ 08086.

In Cremona, Italy in 1441…at the wedding celebration of Francesco Sforza to Bianca Maria Visconti, the buffet featured a delicious sweet made of nutmeats, honey and egg whites. It was fashioned in the shape of the famous tower of Cremona known as “Torrazzo“, hence the name Torrone.

Peruvian turrón

In Peruvian cuisine turrón generally is soft and may be flavored with anise. Is another originally Spanish dessert; the original Spanish recipe, which contained ingredients that were rare or expensive in Peru (such as almonds, rose water, orange blossom water, honey) were modified in a variety of ways. One common variety found in Lima is Turrón de Doña Pepa, an anise and honey nougat that is traditionally prepared for the Señor de los Milagros (or Lord of Miracles) religious procession, during October.


Cashew turrón (Philippine Spanish: turrones de casúy; Spanish: turrones de anacardo) from Pampanga Province is a derivative. It is a bar of marzipan made with cashew nuts, and wrapped in a white wafer. Unlike the rest of Hispanidad, this candy is not associated with the holiday season. Another derivative is the turrones de pili, made using the native pili nut.

An unrelated yet similarly-named street food is turón na saging, which are sliced bananas or plantains dipped in brown sugar, wrapped in spring roll wrappers, and deep-fried.

Central European candy

A confectionery similar to the hard variety of the Spanish turrón and Italian torrone is produced in various Central European countries under names that literally translate to “Turkish honey”.

Traditional Museums in Alicante area

Alicante,Costa Blanca,Spain » Entertainment » Exhibitions

Alicante has a history of hosting lots of different exhibitions in the city and the good news is, this trend still continues today. See below for a selection of ongoing annual exhibitions as well as some of the city’s most famous museums.


Museo Archeologico Provinciale di Alicante – MARQ
(Alicante Provincial Archaeological Museum)
( Visit Site )

This Provincial Archaeological Museum (MARQ) is located in the old Hospital San Juan de Dios and occupies a total surface area of 9,000 sq. metres. Established in 1932, the museum houses an exceptionally priceless collection consisting of 81,000 pieces dating from the Stone Age to the medieval times. Among them, the Lady of Guardamar found on the Iberian settlement of Cabezo Lucero is of particularly interest.

In May 2002 more exhibition rooms and conference centres were established.

In 2004, the museum was declared as the ‘European Museum of the Year’. It has gained phenomenal recognition for its revolutionary approach in exhibiting Alicante’s past through innovative techniques. This museum is highly recommended as a great educational, as well as an entertaining centre, for both children and adults.

Address: Plaza del Doctor Gómez Ulla, S/N 03013 Alicante, Spain
Opening Times: Tuesday to Saturday: 10:00 am – 7:00 pm
Sunday: 10:00 am – 2:00 pm, Closed on Monday
Tel.: +34 965 149 000


Museo De La Asegurada – MACA ( Visit Site ) ( Wikipedia )

Located next to the Santa María church, this museum takes its name from the building it is displayed in, dating from 1685. It exhibits some of the finest artwork of Alicante artist, Eusebio Sempere and French artist Juana Alicante who donated a large part of their private art collection to initiate the museum. The collection of twentieth century contemporary art displayed at the museum is an assortment of 117 paintings, sculptures, mixed technique and lithographs of 144 Spanish artists such as Chillida, Dali, Tapies, Juan Gris, Joan Miro, Zobel, Gargallo, Picasso and non-Spanish artists such as Chagall, Vasarely, Agam,Calder, Kandinsky, etc.

Address: Plaza Santa María 3, 03002 Alicante, Spain
Opening Times: Tuesday to Saturday: 10:00 am – 8:00 pm
Sunday: 10:00 am – 2:00 pm, Closed on Monday
Tel.: +34 965 140 768


Museo de Bellas Artes Gravina
MUBAG (Gravina Museum of Fine Arts)
( Visit Site )

The Museo de Bellas Artes Gravina (MUBAG) is situated within the Palacio del Conde de Lumiares, which was built during the 17th and 18th centuries. It exhibits over 500 pieces dating from the Middle Ages up until 1920. The exhibition includes the works of important artists such as Rodrigo de Osona, Salzillo, Vicente Lopez, Emilio Varela, Xavier Soler, Eusebio Sempere, Joaquin Agrasot and Antonio Gisbert, as well as many more.

This Old Quarter museum houses an exhibition room and an auditorium, which are responsible for hosting musical concerts. It is definitely worth a visit, especially as there is no entrance fee.

Address: Calle de Gravina, 13, 03002, Alicante, Spain
Opening Times: Winter Hours: September 1 to June 30
Tuesday to Saturday: 10:00 am – 8:00 pm
Sunday and Public Holidays: 10:00 am – 2:00 pm, Closed on Monday
Summer Hours: July 1 to August 31
Tuesday to Saturday: 11:00 am – 9:00 pm
Sunday and Public Holidays: 11:00 am – 3:00 pm, Closed on Monday
Tel.: +34 965 146 780

Archivo Municipal (Municipal Archives) ( Visit Site )

Housed in an 18th century mansion, the municipal archives hold the remains of a late-Roman necropolis dating from the 6th to 8th centuries A.D. There are 12th century manuscripts and important documents concerning the town’s history, such as the bestowing of a town charter to Alicante by Ferdinand II in 1490. Notable archives include a newspaper dating from the 19th century and photo records.

Address: Palacio Maisonnave, Calle Labradores, 03002 Alicante, Spain
Opening Times: Monday to Friday: 10:00 am – 1:00 pm
Tel.: +34 965 140 927


Museo de Belenes
(Nativity Scene Museum)
( Visit Site )

The Nativity Scene museum is located in a 19th century old restored house in the Old Quarter of Alicante. It celebrates the ancient Spanish tradition of having a nativity scene in every home during the celebration of Three Kings. The museum contains a collection of antique cribs, Christmas replicas and examples of Christmas nativity scenes from Spain and all over the world. Also, there are exhibits of all kinds of objects related to Christmas, including a life-sized nativity scene.

The Nativity Scene Makers organisation was established in 1959 and ever since then it has cultivated excellent representations of Christmas Nativity exhibitions.

Address: C/ San Agustín, nº 3 – (Casco Antiguo) 03002 Alicante, Spain
Opening Times: Tuesday to Friday: 10:00 am – 2:00 pm, 5:00 pm – 8:00 pm
Saturday: 10:00 am – 2:00 pm
Tel.: +34 965 202 232

Museo Taurino (Bullfighting Museum) ( Visit Site )

The Museo Taurino museum in Alicante exhibits a permanent display of bullfighting highlights dedicated to the most renowned local bullfighters that have shaped the identity of the sport. It pays respect to legends like Vicente Blau “EL TINO, Francisco Antón “PACORRO”, Jose Maria Manzanares and Luis Francisco Espla, through various exhibits focussing on their greatness.

The museum also holds a conference room, exhibition lounge and a library along with an audiovisual room in which discussion groups, slide shows and talks about bullfighting are held.

Address: en la Plaza de España, nº 7 y 8, C.P. 03004, Alicante, Spain
Opening Times: Tuesday to Friday: 10:30 am – 1:30 pm, 5:00 pm – 8:00 pm
Saturday: 10:30 am – 1:30 pm
Tel.: +34 965 219 930


Museo del la Universidad de Alicante
MUA (Museum University of Alicante)
( Visit Site )

The MUA specializes exclusively in Contemporary Art and carries out research activities in this area as well as the diffusion, production, documentation, conservation and teaching of this art.

The foundation of the museum’s activity is based on the presentation of research results obtained on the University of Alicante campus, the propagation of historic-artistic heritage and the diffusion of 21st century artistic works with specific focus on the most modernist forms of expression.

Address: 03690 Sant Vicent del Raspeig, Alicante, Spain
Opening Times: Monday to Friday: 9:00 – 8:00 pm
Saturday: 10:00 am – 2:00 pm
Tel.: +34 965 909 466, +34 965 903 865


Museo de Hogueras (Hogueras Museum) ( Visit Site )

The Hogueras Museum is dedicated to Alicante’s most popular festivals: the Hogueras de San Juan or Saint John’s Bonfires. It is located in the Casa de la Festa building where the two streets, Teniente Alvarez Soto and Rambla de Mendez Nunez, come together. Here, we can find an admirable exhibition of photographs from throughout the years, the alleged Ninots indultats, or Saved Statues, a compilation of traditional costumes and advertising posters plus an audio-visual hall.

Address: Rambla de Méndez Núñez, 29, 03002 Alicante, Spain
Opening Times: Winter Hours: October 1 to May 31
Tuesday to Saturday: 10:00 am – 2:00 pm, 5:00 pm – 8:00 pm, Sunday and Public Holidays: 10:00 am – 2:00 pm, Closed on Monday
Summer Hours: June 1 to September 30
Tuesday to Saturday: 10:00 am – 2:00 pm, 6:00 pm – 9:00 pm
Sunday and Public Holidays: 10:00 am – 2:00 pm, Closed on Monday
Tel.: +34 965 146 828


Casa-Museo Miguel Hernández
(Miguel Hernández House Museum)
( Visit Site )

This is the house where the famous poet Miguel Hernández lived. The 20th Century house, now a museum, is a representation of the poet’s family life. It has a poultry yard, small patio, and features many objects that played a significant part in Miguel’s life, including photographs of him with his family, furniture and personal items.

There is no entrance fee to view this house, and it is advised to make an appointment for a guided tour.

Address: Calle Miguel Hernández, 73 03300 Orihuela, Alicante, Spain
Opening Times: Winter Hours: October 1 to May 31
Tuesday to Saturday: 10:00 am – 2:00 pm, 4:00 pm – 7:00 pm
Sunday and Public Holidays: 10:00 am – 2:00 pm, Closed on Monday
Summer Hours: June 1 to September 30
Tuesday to Saturday: 10:00 am – 2:00 pm, 5:00 pm – 8:00 pm
Sunday and Public Holidays: 10:00 am – 2:00 pm, Closed on Monday
Tel.: +34 965 306 327


La Lonja del Pescado Exhibition Hall ( Visit Site )

Lonja del Pescado, an Arabic styled building with Moorish influences, opened in 1992 as an exhibition hall on the site of a former fish market. Designed by engineer Prsópero Lafarga in Historicist style, the hall was extended in the year 2000. This spacious 20th century building with its generous height and length is responsible for hosting many festivals, charity events and art exhibitions throughout the year. The building includes three exhibition rooms, a cafe and a shop, and entry is usually free of charge.

Address: Paseo Almirante Julio Guillén Tato, s/n 03001 Alicante, Spain
Opening Times: January to June and from September to December
Tuesday to Friday: 9:00 – 2:00 pm, 4:00 pm – 10:00 pm
Saturday: 10:00 – 2:00 pm, 5:00 – 10:00 pm
Sunday: 10:00 – 2:00 pm, Closed on Monday
Tel.: +34 965 922 018, +34 965 922 306


Museo de Arqueología e Historia de Elche
MAHE (Archaeology and History Museum of Elche)
( Visit Site )

Alejandro Ramos Folqués Archaeological and History Museum of Elche (MAHE) is a very modern museum representing the history of Elche in a technically advanced setting. With interactive exhibitions of archaeological findings and the history behind the Muslim city of Elche, the museum is definitely worth a visit.

Furthermore, it holds a variety of cultural workshops, replicas of ancient civilisations and audiovisual shows as well as exhibitions of many more historic objects.

This amazing museum has a low admission fee of just 3 Euros, and is free on Sunday.

Address: C/ Diagonal del Palau, S/N 03202 Elche, Spain
Opening Times: Monday to Saturday: 10:00 am – 6:00 pm
Sunday and Public Holidays: 10:00 am – 3:00 pm
Tel.: +34 966 615 382

Grundtvig dissemination meeting of RPT in Slovakia


We had our last “Grundtvig meeting” at the weekend on Sunday. People who participated in the project or helped us during the two years visited the house of Folklor in Salka. We had a short presentation about the house and the country lifestyle of old days, then we had some handicraft workshops. In the meantime the landladies prepared for us tasty traditional foods in the open air oven and who was interested in the process, he/she could join them and help them in cooking, baking. It was not only an amazing day but we spent our time very usefully. Everybody agreed on that we learnt again something new, something practical.
We are very happy that we could participate in this project. We hope that we can continue our co-operation in the future 😉


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Photos from our year-end membership meeting in Slovakia

Photos from our year-end membership meeting what we organized in March 2013 and on which we also spoke about the project, about our study visits, our local activities financed by the programme and about the Grundtvig programme in general. Some photos about each meeting were shown as well

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Dissemination event organized on 14th July in Slovakia


Please, find attached photos about the dissemination event what we organized on 14th July. As you can see we introduced the published handbook, but we printed some leaflets of 3rd edition translated into Slovak and our newsletter as well, in which we wrote about visit in the U.K. and some local activities. We also shared DVDs. Then we organized workshops from the handbook. We made during the handicraft workshop Polish “Wycinanki”… at least we tried 🙂 We learnt to cook tortilla, we prepared English “buttonhole” and girls’ headdress what we wanted to do with the participants on the meeting in Slovakia but we didn’t have time for it. It’s an important part of girls’ folk costume. With the kids we played our folk game: Catch the stick! We showed to people Romanian folk costume on the doll given by our Romanian friends and their beautiful embroidered tablecloths. But before all of this we talked about our study visits, what we learnt, which skills we acquired, what experiences we collected. There were present on the event 7 people who participated on the meetings in Poland or Romania or UK.
We enjoyed the afternoon and we learnt again something new together. Maybe our wycinanki or tortilla or the buttonholes where not as good as the “originals” but we tried to do our best. Thanks for the recipes, workshop descriptions 🙂

Pictures about the dissemination of the Ebook in the COLEGIUL NAȚIONAL ȘTEFAN VELOVAN ( ROMANIA)

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Programme of the dissemination activities in the school COLEGIUL NAȚIONAL ȘTEFAN VELOVAN ( ROMANIA)

Find the programme of the dissemination activities did in the COLEGIUL NAȚIONAL ȘTEFAN VELOVAN ( ROMANIA) for the results of the project.

Program dissemination activities-end products

Traditional regional family day on 29th June 2013 in Slovakia

Our organization held its traditional regional family day on 29th June 2013. This year the folklore and folk traditions made the spirit of the program. The visitors could try out various folk toys while the smallest could sit on a wooden carousel, as well. It was nice to see kids and their parents trying to solve a variety of tasks together. Meanwhile, the skillful adults and children had the possibility to learn various folk arts and crafts, too. After everyone has acquired enough new knowledge and skills, relax, resting or “siesta” came in the form of storytelling. Citing the atmosphere of the old weavers the audience settled on a blanket around the storyteller and listened to the beautiful folk tales. Then the dance began where people from different generations were acquainted with the basics of folk dance, played folk games together. It is important to note that the majority of the programs were funded by the European Commission within the framework of the Lifelong Learning Programme.

Article about the ebook and the dissemination in romania

Here you can download the article of the romanian partner about the dissemination of the ebook

Article about ebook in romania